Constitution -> Entire Text

<br /><br /> Jefferson Society — Constitution<br /><br />


Constitution

Preamble
We, the members of the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society at the University of Virginia, in order to form a more permanent organization, provide for our common improvement in debate, promote general culture amongst ourselves and those around us, and drill ourselves in all exercises which strengthen us for the free duties of citizenship, do ordain and establish this Constitution for our government, and pledge ourselves in its support.
ARTICLE I. MEMBERSHIP
Section 1. Non-Discrimination.
The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society does not discriminate in its membership or membership policies based on age, citizenship, color, disability, gender, race, religion, national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation or status as a disabled Veteran or Veteran of the Vietnam era.
Section 2. .
A. Regular Membership.
All students in regular enrollment at the University of Virginia who have demonstrated by attendance and participation during a probationary period of not less than one academic semester that they are worthy of Regular Membership in the Society in accordance with its purposes as set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution, who have presented an acceptable Probationary presentation as set forth in Article VI of the Bylaws, and no other person, shall be eligible for Regular Membership in the Society. Candidates presented to the Society by the Membership Committee and receiving votes of four-fifths of the regular Members of the Society present and voting shall be deemed duly elected as Regular Members of the Society; provided that in every case, four-fifths of the votes cast shall be at least one-third of the Regular Membership in good standing at the time. The failure of a candidate so presented to receive a four-fifths affirmative vote shall result in his being dropped from membership in the Society, unless he shall be continued as a Probationary Member by specific action taken at the same meeting, approved by four-fifths of those voting.
B. Probationary Membership.
All students in regular enrollment at the University of Virginia shall be eligible for Probationary Membership of this Society. Candidates for Probationary Membership shall make written application to the Society, furnishing such information as the Membership Committee may desire. The Membership Committee shall make a non-binding report. The affirmative vote of four-fifths of the Members in good standing present and voting shall be required to elect a candidate to Probationary Membership. Probationary Members shall have all the rights and privileges of the Hall, except those of holding office, voting for Officers of the Society, voting upon the adoption of amendments to the Constitution and the Bylaws, voting on the passage of Probationary presentations, and voting upon the election of candidates for Probationary Membership and of Probationary Members into Regular Membership.
C. Associate Members.
When a Regular Member of the Society ends his regular enrollment at the University of Virginia, he shall become an Associate Member of the Society. When an Associate Member returns to regular enrollment at the University of Virginia, he may regain Regular Membership after re-signing the Roll. The Executive Committee, subject to review by the Society, shall have the power to rule on any case where reasonable doubt exists as to a person’s status as an Associate Member. When a Member of the Society who has paid Regular Member dues for two semesters shall so request in writing, he shall become an Associate Member. Associate Members of the Society shall have all the privileges of Regular Members except that they may not hold office, or have any share or interest in the property or possessions of the Society. Associate Members may vote only after paying dues in the amount established for Regular Members, or a onetime fee of equal to four times this amount as established at the time of payment, or a one-time fee of two-hundred dollars paid prior to August 23, 2011; after which they shall have the vote on all questions except those upon the election of Officers, the amendment of the Constitution and of the Bylaws, and the consideration of candidates for Probationary, Regular, and Honorary Membership.
D. Honorary Members.
Honorary Membership shall be reserved for those who are not students at the University of Virginia and who have rendered signal service to the Society. Honorary Members shall be elected by the signed approval of four-fifths of the Regular Members in good standing. Honorary Members must sign the Roll.
E. .
Section 3. Secrecy.
The consideration of candidates for Regular, Probationary, and Honorary Membership shall be in sessions closed to all but Regular and Associate Members. No member shall divulge the proceedings of the closed sessions to non-members. Violations of the aforementioned constitute grounds for expulsion as well as any other sanction the Society deems appropriate.
Section 4. Resignation.
The resignation from the Society of any Members shall be made in writing to the Secretary and shall be effective one week after its receipt. Resignation of the Secretary will be made in writing to the President and Historian of the Society
Section 5. Conduct.
A. Generally.
Members shall act at all times in a manner becoming students of the University of Virginia and Members of the Society.  The Society has both the right and obligation to ensure that Society Membership remains a mark of character and honor, in perpetuity.
B. Standard of Conduct.
Members shall not:
1. commit any crime of moral turpitude; nor
2. commit any act of dishonesty or moral turpitude; nor
3. divulge the proceedings of any closed session of the Society to any person unauthorized to attend the closed session; nor
4. commit any act which, in the sole judgment and determination of the Society, as made in accordance with Article I § 5(C)(2)(i) of this Constitution, is seriously prejudicial to the best interests or reputation of the Society.

C. Expulsion.
i. Generally.
Any Member (excluding Probationary Members) who violates the Society’s Standard of Conduct, as established by Article I § 5(B) of this Constitution, shall be subject to expulsion from the Society according to the procedure set forth in Article I § 5(C)(2)-(6), as applicable.

ii. Commencement of Proceedings

a.  By Whom.
Expulsion proceedings against a Member may only be commenced by passage of a resolution, in closed session, by either:
     1. the Executive Committee, provided that four-fifths of the Executive Committee vote in favor of commencing expulsion proceedings against the Member; or
     2. the Society sitting as a committee of the whole, provided that a majority of Regular Members in good standing vote in favor of commencing expulsion proceedings against the Member.

b. Contents.
     A resolution commencing expulsion proceedings against a member shall state, with particularity:
     1. the subsection(s) of Article I § 5(B) alleged to have been violated by the Member; and
     2. the violating acts or omissions alleged to have been committed by the Member.

c. Temporal Limitation.
     A resolution commencing expulsion proceedings may not be considered until the second regularly scheduled meeting of each academic semester has adjourned.

iii. Notice and Service.

a. Contents.
Due notice shall be provided to any Member who is the subject of expulsion proceedings no less than three weeks prior to the date of the expulsion hearing.  The Member shall be provided service of:
     1. a summons stating the date, time, and location of the expulsion hearing; and
     2. a true and correct copy of the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings against the Member; and
     3. if the Member is an Associate Member, a summary of the procedural rights afforded by this Article to Associate Members who are the subject of an expulsion proceeding.

b. Means of Service.
Due notice shall be served:
     1. as set forth in Rule 4(e), 4(f), or 4(g) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as applicable, if the Member is a Regular or Associate Member; or
     2. by a PDF document attached to an electronic mail and sent to an email address provided to the Member by the University of Virginia, unless the Member is an Associate Member, in which case service must be effected in accordance with the procedure set forth in subparagraph (a) of this subchapter.

iv. Investigation.

a. Procedure
The Membership Committee shall conduct an investigation of the allegations stated by the resolution initiating expulsion proceedings, and shall prepare a report detailing its findings.  The Membership Committee shall keep the means and activities of the investigation, along with its findings and report, confidential, except that the Membership Committee shall 1) disclose a copy of the report to the the Member subject to expulsion no less than seven days prior to the expulsion hearing; and 2) disclose the contents of the report to the Society Membership during the expulsion hearing.

b. Conflicts & Recusal

     1. Mandatory Recusal
     Any member of the Membership Committee (including the Membership Chair) who is the subject of the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings under investigation shall be replaced on the investigation committee by a Regular Member appointed by the President.  If the Membership Chair is replaced, the President shall also select a member of the Membership Committee to serve as Membership Chair for purposes of the procedures set forth in Section 5 of this Article.

     2. Voluntary Recusal
     Any member of the Membership Committee (including the Membership Chair) may elect, in their sole discretion, to recuse themselves from the investigation committee.  Any recusal must be made in writing to the Secretary, and shall be effective immediately.  The President shall appoint a Regular Member to replace the recused member of the Membership Committee.  If the Membership Chair recuses herself or himself, the President shall also select a member of the Membership Committee to serve as Membership Chair for purposes of the procedures set forth in Section 5 of this Article.  

v. Hearing & Procedure.

a. Mandatory Hearing.
All expulsion proceedings shall terminate in a live hearing on the question of expulsion,–regardless of whether the Member elects to contest expulsion–unless the Member tenders his or her resignation, in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 4 of this Article, prior to hearing.  The expulsion hearing shall be held in Hotel C, West Range during a meeting of the Society, and shall be held in closed session.  Notwithstanding any constitutional provision, rule, or bylaw to the contrary, the expulsion hearing shall be the first order of business.  

At the close of the expulsion hearing, the Society shall determine by secret ballot whether the Member shall be expelled from the Society in accordance with Article I § 5(C)(5)(ix)(c) of this Constitution.  Should the expulsion hearing end without the Society voting to expel the Member in the manner provided for in Article I § 5(C)(5)(ix)(c) of this Constitution, the Member shall be deemed to have prevailed at hearing.

b. Right to Speedy Hearing.
The expulsion hearing shall be held:
     1. within eight weeks of the approval of the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings; and
     2. within the same academic semester as the approval of the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings.
If the Society fails to conduct a timely expulsion hearing after previously approving a resolution commencing expulsion proceedings, the Member shall be deemed to have prevailed at hearing.

c. Right to Appear.
The Member subject to expulsion shall have the right to appear at the expulsion hearing, in person, to present their position regarding the facts and circumstances that are the subject of the expulsion proceedings.  The Member subject to expulsion must personally appear if the Member wishes to present his or her position, except that Associate Members may elect to appear by writing in lieu of personal appearance.  If an Associate Member elects to appear by writing, the Member may submit a typewritten document stating the Member’s position regarding the facts and circumstances that are the subject of the expulsion proceedings, which the chair shall read aloud in an impartial manner to the Society Membership in lieu of the Member’s personal appearance.

d. Evidence.
The law of evidence shall not apply to expulsion proceedings against a Member.  All relevant evidence may be considered by the Society Membership.  The chair shall decide questions of relevance and other questions of admissibility.  Use of hearsay evidence is discouraged if reasonable alternatives are available, but may be considered by the Society Membership, at the chair’s discretion.

e. No Representation.
Representation by counsel shall not be permitted.

f. Witnesses.
Witnesses may be called by either the Membership Chair or the Member subject to expulsion. Neither party may compel testimony. Cross-examination shall be permitted.  

g. Burden of Proof.
The Membership Chair (or his or her designee) bears the burden of proving the allegations contained in the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings, such that the present and voting Members of the Society come to hold a moral conviction of the truth of those allegations.

h.  No Precedential Effect.
No ruling or finding of any kind made during the course of an expulsion hearing, including but not limited to those of fact, law, rule, procedure, or custom, is to be accorded any precedential weight in any future expulsion hearing.

i. Order of Presentation.

     1. Membership Chair Presentation.
     The Membership Chair, or his or her designee, shall present the results of the Membership Committee’s investigation to the Membership of the Society.  The Membership Chair or his or her designee shall confine his or her presentation to the findings contained in the report provided to the Member subject to expulsion prior to the hearing.  

     2. Member Presentation.
     After the Membership Chair has concluded his or her presentation, the Member subject to expulsion shall present her or his position regarding the facts and circumstances that are the subject of the expulsion proceedings.  If and only if the Member is an Associate Member who has elected to appear by writing pursuant to Article I § 5(iii), the chair shall read the Member’s written submission after the Membership Chair has concluded his or her presentation, in lieu of the Member’s personal appearance.

     3. Vote.
     After both the Membership Chair and Member have concluded their presentations, the chair shall:

          a) instruct the Society Membership that the Membership Chair bears the burden of persuading each Member present, such that, in order to vote for expulsion, he or she must hold a moral conviction of the truth of the allegations set forth in the resolution commencing expulsion proceedings; and
          b) put the question of expulsion to a vote by secret ballot.  

     The Member shall be expelled if and only if at least four-fifths of the Regular Members of the Society in good standing vote in favor of expulsion.  The chair shall announce the result of the vote, but not the vote count.  If and only if the chair announces that the Society has voted to expel the Member, the Member shall have the right to inspect both the ballots and the roll for error.  The vote of the Society Membership is final, and there shall be no right of appeal therefrom whatsoever.

vi. Effect of Prevailing at Hearing.
Any Member who prevails at an expulsion hearing shall not be the subject of another resolution commencing expulsion proceedings arising out of the same common nucleus of operative facts, unless:
     1. the Member has been convicted of a crime due to conduct that is part of the same common nucleus of operative facts; and
     2. the conviction occurred after the Member prevailed in his or her expulsion hearing.

ARTICLE II. OFFICERS AND ELECTIONS
Section 1. Eligibility.
All Regular Members in good standing who are full time students at the University of Virginia, as defined by the University Registrar, may hold office. All Regular Members in good standing may vote in all elections of officers. There shall be no absentee ballots.
Section 2. Elective Officers, Their Terms and Duties.
The elective Officers of the Society shall be a President, a Vice President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, an Historian, and a Keeper. No Member shall hold more than one of these offices at one time.
A. President.
The President shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in each semester and shall hold office until the installation of his successor. The President shall preside over all the meetings of the Society, shall preserve order and decorum, shall construe and enforce the Constitution and Bylaws of the Society, shall appoint the Committees of the Society as provided for in the Bylaws, and all other officers pro tempore, and shall perform all the other duties pertaining to his office.
B. Vice President.
The Vice President shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in each semester and shall hold office until the installation of his successor. He shall serve as the Chairman of the Program Committee and in the absence of the President he shall occupy the chair and exercise all functions of the presiding officer.
C. Secretary.
The Secretary shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in each semester and shall hold office until the installation of his successor. He shall call the Roll and keep a record of all absentees, shall carefully preserve an account of the proceedings of the Society and all its records and documents that may be entrusted to him, shall transcribe in a book kept for that purpose all amendments to this Constitution and to the Bylaws of the Society, and shall perform all other duties incident to the office of recording secretary.
D. Treasurer.
The Treasurer shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in each semester and shall hold office until the installation of his successor. The Treasurer shall collect and take charge of all funds of the Society. He shall make no disbursement unless directly authorized by the Executive Committee, and shall not make authorized disbursements exceeding the sum of fifty dollars, unless directly authorized to do so by the Society. The Treasurer shall keep, in a book provided for the purpose, a careful and minute account of all receipts collected and disbursements made by him for the Society. This book shall be open at all times to the inspection of any Member of the Society at all reasonable times, and it shall be transmitted to the Executive Committee for auditing at times provided for in the Bylaws of the Society. The Treasurer shall at every meeting of the Society report to the President the names of, and object to the assignment of the floor to, all Members who are subject to the provisions of the Bylaws with reference to failure to pay any fees, dues, fines, or assessments.
E. Historian.
The Historian shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in the spring semester and shall hold office until the election of his successor. The Historian shall prepare a chronicle of the activities of the Society during his session in office and shall submit this chronicle to the society at the last regular meeting of the Society in the spring semester. The Historian shall arrange and host the annual Moomaw Oratorical Contest, the Wilson Banquet, and the Founder’s Day Banquet. The Historian, being the sole officer to serve for the full academic term, shall, on the C.I.O. Agreement, be the primary signatory of the Society; his signature shall have the full consent, force, and effect of the Society with respect to the C.I.O. Agreement, barring a vote to the contrary by the Society, preventing the aforementioned signature.
F. Keeper.
The Keeper shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in each semester and shall hold office until the installation of his successor. The Keeper shall perform all duties consistent with the historical significance of his office.
Section 3. Appointed Officers, Their Terms and Duties.
A. Probationary Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Probationary Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the sessions of the Probationary Committee, to act as intermediary between the Regular and Probationary Members, and to schedule, supervise, and present Probationary presentations. He and the Probationary Committee shall discuss the topic, content, and procedure of the presentation with the Probationary Members as well as determine, at the beginning of each semester, the requirements for membership, and consult the Executive Committee when formulating these standards.
B. Membership Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Membership Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the sessions of the Membership Committee, to present the candidates for Probationary and Regular Membership to the Society, to report the candidate recommendations of the Committee to the Society and shall report to the Executive Committee any breaches of the Society’s non-discrimination policy.
C. Ways and Means Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Ways and Means Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the meetings of the Ways and Means Committee and to execute the traditional responsibilities of his office.
D. Parliamentarian.
The President may appoint a Parliamentarian, whose duty it shall be to advise the President as to parliamentary procedure at his request or that of any Regular Member, as defined in the Bylaws, and to advise the President in matters of construction of this Constitution and of the Bylaws of the Society.
E. Pen and Ink Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Pen and Ink Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the meetings of the Pen and Ink Committee, to publish and disseminate the Jefferson Journal, and to carry out other responsibilities which may be assigned by the Society.”
F. Sergeant-at-Arms.
The President shall appoint a Sergeant-at-Arms, whose duty it shall be to prevent, in the best of his power, the violation of Federal, State, and local penal statutes at the meetings of the Society, to report all infractions of said statutes to the Executive Committee, and to enlist the aid of the General Membership or any public official in performing his duties. It shall be within the power of the Sergeant-at-Arms to bar from meetings any person determined by him to be in violation of said statutes at that time, within a standard of reasonable sensibility.
G. Debate and Oratory Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Debate and Oratory Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the meetings of the Debate and Oratory Committee and to carry out other responsibilities which may be assigned by the Society.
H. Public Services Chairman.
The President shall appoint a Public Services Chairman, whose duty it shall be to chair the meetings of the Public Services Committee and to promote the Society’s good standing in the Community.
I. Alumni Relations Chairman.
The President shall appoint an Alumni Relations Chairman whose duty it shall be to maintain contact with Alumni, promote all relevant events to Alumni, and organize in conjunction with the Executive Committee opportunities for charitable giving to the Society.
Section 4. Electoral Procedure.
The election of Officers of the Society shall be by secret written ballot which shall be collected and counted by two tellers appointed and assisted by the President. A simple majority of the votes cast, a quorum being present, shall be sufficient to elect. If this majority be not obtained on the first ballot, the candidate with the least number of votes shall be dropped, and the Society shall proceed to another ballot. This process shall be continued until one candidate shall have obtained a majority of the votes cast. The result of the election shall then be transmitted by the tellers in writing to the President, who shall announce the result to the floor. Ample opportunity shall be allowed for a demand for a recount, after which the ballots shall be destroyed by the tellers. There shall be no further balloting for that office.
Section 5. Installation of Officers.
The retiring President shall administer the following oath (or affirmation) to his successor before relinquishing to him the office of President:

     Do you solemnly swear (or affirm) upon your honor, and in the presence of this Society, that you will faithfully execute the duties of the office to which you have been elected?

The new President shall then administer the same oath (or affirmation) to each of the other newly elected officers.

Section 6. Vacancies.
Should a vacancy occur in any of the elected offices of the Society, such a vacancy shall be filled by the Society not later than the next meeting following the formal announcement of such a vacancy.
Section 7. Discipline and Resignation of Officers.
Any elected Officer of the Society shall be subject to removal from office for neglect of duty, misconduct in office, or for any cause deemed sufficient by the Society; provided that in every case due opportunity for defense shall be given. For such removal, a three-fourths vote of the Regular Members in good standing present and voting shall be necessary; provided that in every case, three-fourths of the votes cast shall be a majority of the Regular Membership in good standing at the time. The President shall have the power to remove any appointive officer, for cause deemed by him sufficient. Resignation from an office in the Society shall be made in writing to the President. Resignation from the office of President shall be made in writing to the Vice President and to the Secretary.
Section 8. Corporate Officers.
Whatever Board of Directors or Board of Governors may be required by law and the charter of incorporation of this society, whensoever the Society shall be incorporated, shall consist of all the elective officers of this Society. The President of the Society shall be the President of the Board; the Treasurer of the Society shall be the Treasurer of the Board; each elective officer of the Society shall fill a corresponding office on the Board; whenever such corresponding office shall exist.
ARTICLE III. POWERS OF THE SOCIETY
Section 1. Powers.
The Society shall have the power to:

(a) perform all functions reasonably consistent with its purposes as set forth in the preamble to the Constitution.

(b) provide for the open expression of the collective opinion of the Society.

(c) levy duties and assessments and to contract loans.

(d) provide general rules under which officers and members may be sanctioned for failure to perform their duties.

Section 2. Bylaws and Amendments.
A. Bylaws.
Bylaws not contrary to the Constitution shall become part of the governing rules of the Society when they have been submitted in writing to the Secretary, have been read at two regular meetings of the Society, and have then been passed by two-thirds of all Regular Members in good standing present and voting, provided that the number of Regular Members voting constitutes at least one-half of the Regular Membership in good standing.
B. Amendments.
Amendments to, and revisions of, this Constitution shall become effective, and this Constitution shall be by them altered or revised, when such amendments or revisions have been submitted in writing to the Secretary, have been read at two consecutive regular meetings of the Society, and have then been passed by an affirmative vote of three-fourths of the Regular Members in good standing present, provided that the number of Regular Members voting constitutes at least one-half of the Regular Membership in good standing.
ARTICLE I. MEETINGS, QUORUM, AND GOOD STANDING, SIGNING OF THE ROLL
Section 1. Meetings.
A. Regular Meetings.
The Society shall meet regularly each week during the academic year on a set evening at a convenient hour; the day of the meeting shall be selected by a two-thirds vote of the Regular Members. The day of the meeting during the week shall be subject to change, or a meeting may be canceled, by a two-thirds vote of the Executive Committee, subject to the approval of the Regular Membership. Unless otherwise decided by the Society in accordance with this section, the Society shall meet at 7:29 p.m. on Fridays when classes are in session in the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Virginia in the Fall and Spring semesters.
B. Special Meetings.
A special meeting may be called by the President at any time he deems it necessary. It shall also be the duty of the President to call a special meeting when requested in writing to do so by five Regular Members. If the President fails to call a special meeting when so requested, a quorum of Regular Members may call a special meeting. Notice of a special meeting shall be posted plainly in front of the Society’s Hall at least forty-eight hours before the designated time for the special meeting. The notice shall state the following: the date, time, and place of the special meeting; the purpose of the special meeting; and by whose authority the special meeting was called. The notice shall remain posted until the time designated for the special meeting.
Section 2. Quorum.
A. Number.
One fourth of the Regular Members in good standing of the Society shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business, unless otherwise provided in the Constitution of the Society, provided that the Regular Membership in good standing be thirty or less; but when the Regular Membership is above that number, one-fifth of such Membership shall constitute a quorum.
B. Good Standing.
Membership in Good Standing shall be construed as follows:

(1) A Member shall be computed in the total Membership in Good Standing immediately upon signing the minute book of the Society, in accordance with Article I. Section 3. of these Bylaws. Such “signing of the Roll” should take place at the first meeting attended of each academic semester. Only such Members as have signed the minute book shall be considered Members in Good Standing for the ensuing semester, and shall have privileges of membership as stated in Article 1, Section 1 of the Constitution.

(2) All members must pay any fees, dues, fines, or penalties in accordance with Article 2 of the By-Laws in order to be considered a Member in Good Standing. Failure to meet this obligation shall result in the loss of all privileges of membership, at which point the negligent member shall be discounted in the determination of quorum.

C. Record of Members in Good Standing.
The Secretary of the Society shall keep a record of all Regular Members and shall report the total Regular Membership in good standing to the President or presiding officer at such times as there is a call for a quorum by a Regular Member in good standing.
Section 3. Signing of the Roll.
At the first meeting attended of each academic semester, each Member of the Society should sign his name in the minute book of the Society, together with the State of his residence and the date of such signing; all persons elected to Membership in the Society shall likewise sign this Roll. The Roll shall be so kept as to keep the lists of Probationary and Regular Members separate. At the head of each such Roll shall be inscribed that part of the initiation ritual required by Article I. Section 2. of the Constitution.
ARTICLE II. DUES, FEES, FINES, AND PENALTIES
Section 1. Dues and Fees.
A. Dues.
Probationary and Regular Members shall pay dues of sixty dollars per semester. Failure to pay dues before the adjournment of the third meeting of the semester shall result in an additional fee of ten dollars being added to Regular Member dues, making them seventy dollars after such time. Failure of a Probationary Member to pay dues before the adjournment of the third meeting of his Probationary Membership shall result in an additional fee of ten dollars being added to Probationary Member dues. Associate Members shall be exempt from all fees and dues, but not from fines and assessments; Associate Members may pay Regular Member dues or a one time fee of equal to four times

this amount as established at the time of payment, or a one-time fee

of two-hundred dollars paid prior to August 23, 2011, to earn the additional privileges in Article I. Section 2. Paragraph C. of the Constitution.

B. Fees.
The Society may levy additional fees, by a two-thirds vote, to cover any operating deficit or extraordinary expense in a given semester.
C. Shingle Fees.
Probationary Members shall pay a shingle fee of five dollars at the time of their dues payment so that they may be presented with a certificate of membership upon successful crossover into Regular Membership.
Section 2. Fines and Penalties.
A. Failure to Make Payment.
Any Member shall automatically lose the privileges of his Membership, including the privileges of the floor, for failure to pay any fees, dues, or fines by the prescribed time. In the absence of payment or appeal within two weeks thereafter, the name of the Member shall be stricken from the Roll at the discretion of the Executive Committee. In the event that a Regular Member fails to pay his dues during two consecutive semesters, he shall be subject to expulsion. The Treasurer shall be responsible for notifying any Member who fails to pay his dues that, upon the next semester of delinquency, the Member’s name will be stricken from the roll and the Member shall lose his Good Standing. Membership may be reinstated through payment of exactly double the dues of the present semester or, in special circumstances, by petition of the Executive Committee.
B. Penalty for Absence.
It shall be the duty of the Secretary to Report to the Executive Committee the absence of any Member from two-thirds of the semester’s meetings of the Society.
C. Members in Good Standing.
Any Member not subject to any fee, due, fine, or penalty under this article shall be deemed a Member in Good Standing provided that the Member has signed the roll in accordance with Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph B of the By-Laws.
ARTICLE III. COMMITTEES
Section 1. Standing Committees.
A. Number and Designation.
There shall be the following Standing Committees:

(1) Program Committee.

(2) Executive Committee.

(3) Membership Committee.

(4) Appropriations Committee.

(5) Ways and Means Committee.

(6) Historical Committee.

(7) Pen and Ink Committee.

(8) Probationary Committee.

(9) Public Services Committee.

(10) Restoration Ball Committee.

(11) Debate and Oratory Committee.

(12) Restoration Ball Committee.

B. Program Committee.
The Vice President shall be Chairman of the Program Committee. The President shall appoint at least two other members. It shall be the duty of the Committee to arrange a suitable program for the meetings of the Society. Each program shall be announced at least one week before the time at which it is to be presented. In the arrangement of the program, the Committee shall be guided by their own discretion and by the purposes of the Society, expressed in the Preamble to the Constitution. Upon objection to any program, it may be changed by a majority vote of those present when the program is announced.
C. Executive Committee.
The Executive Committee shall be composed of the President, the Vice President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, the Historian, the Chairman of Membership, Probationary, Ways and Means, Pen and Ink, Debate and Oratory, and Public Services Committees, the Keeper, and the Society’s Resident of Room Seven, West Lawn. Besides performing the duties elsewhere delegated to it, this Committee shall act as an advisory body and shall consider all matters of interest to the Society. It shall have the power to bring upon the floor measures which it believes the Society should consider. Its functions, however, should not conflict with those of other regular committees. The Executive Committee of the Fall semester (those who hold office at the end of the semester), and the Spring semester (those who hold office at the time of the selection) shall select the Society’s Resident of Room Seven, West Lawn.
D. Membership Committee.
The Membership Committee shall be composed of five members elected by the President. The membership committee shall have the goal of publicizing the Society to the University community and encouraging all members of the community to take an interest in the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society. It shall be the duty of this Committee to investigate such men and women as it has reason to think are interested in literary society membership and who would enrich the Society by their participation, to receive applications for Probationary Membership, and to arrange for each applicant to be interviewed by a panel of Regular and Associate Members. No applicant shall be interviewed more than once each semester for each class of Probationary Members. The Membership Committee shall consider the advice of such panels, and will present in a non-binding report at the next business meeting of the Society the names of those men and women whom it recommends for such Membership. The reports of the Membership Committee, including both majority and minority reports in the case of a division, shall be endorsed on each application, and the application placed in the hands of the Historian to be kept among the records of the Society. It shall also be the duty of the Committee to consider the eligibility of each Probationary Member for Regular Membership, and to report at an appropriate meeting of the Society its recommendations as to his candidacy not later than one semester after the date of his signing of the Probationary Roll. The meetings of the Membership Committee shall be closed and proceedings shall be held confidential. It shall be the duty of the membership committee to prevent, to the best of its powers, any violation of the Society’s nondiscrimination policies, to report all infractions of said policies to the Executive Committee, and to enlist the aid of the General Membership in performing these duties.
E. Appropriations Committee.
(1) The Appropriations Committee shall:
     (i) monitor the collection for, use of, and disbursement from the accounts of the Society; undertake the Audit under Article V, § 2 of these bylaws; and,
     (ii) assist the treasurer in his duties.
(2) The committee shall consist of the Treasurer and four elected members. No other member of the Executive Committee shall be a voting member of the Committee.
(3) Members of the Committee shall be elected by a plurality vote of the Regular Membership of the Society at the first regular meeting of the semester.
(4) Members of the Committee shall serve in their position until the beginning of the first meeting of the semester following their election.
(5) The Committee must reach a quorum of three (3) members to transact business.
(6) Members of the Committee may only be removed through hthe disciplinary proceedings for elected officers described in Article II, § 7 of the Constitution.
(7) Chair of the Appropriations Committee
     (i) Voting members of the Committee shall elect from amongst themselves a Chair, who shall not be the Treasurer.
     (ii) The Chair shall conduct and present the semester audit, following a meeting of the Committee outside of the presence of the Treasurer.
     (iii) The Chair shall call a meeting of the Committee without the presence of the Treasurer to discuss allegations of misconduct brought against the Treasurer.

F. Ways and Means Committee.
The Ways and Means Committee shall be composed of three members, appointed by the President. The Committee shall provide for the Society’s social events, including a Probationary party and a faculty cocktail party each semester.
G. Historical Committee.
The Historical Committee shall be composed of six members, one of whom shall be the Historian of the Society; the other members shall be appointed by the President. The Historian of the Society shall always be Chairman of this Committee. One member of this Committee shall be known as the Scribe, whose duties it shall be to maintain the Society’s computer files and web site, which shall include a current copy of the Constitution, Bylaws, Standing Rules, Ball Committee Constitutions, and other such records as the Society may require.

Another member of this committee shall be known as the Illuminator, whose responsibility it shall be to maintain a pictorial record of the semester’s events. The additional members of this Committee shall otherwise assist the Historian in the fulfillment of his duties. This Committee shall plan and make all necessary arrangements for the Benjamin C. Moomaw contest to be held annually during the Spring. Such arrangements shall include the selection of judges and the distribution of appropriate publicity materials. This Committee shall plan and make all necessary arrangements for the annual Wilson and Founder’s Day Banquets, as well as be responsible for planning and executing the annual Edgar Allan Poe reading contest.

H. Pen and Ink Committee.
The Pen and Ink Committee shall be composed of four members, appointed by the President. It shall be the duty of this Committee to publish The Jefferson Journal, to make necessary arrangements for the Society’s literary contests, and to assist the Society in facilitating literary presentations and discussions.
I. Probationary Committee.
The Probationary Committee shall be composed of at least five members, appointed by the President. The Probationary Committee shall discuss the topic, content, and procedure of the Probationary presentation with the Probationary members.
J. Public Services Committee.
The Public Services Committee shall consist of five members, including a chairman, all appointed by the President. The Committee shall be responsible for Society scholarships and for activities authorized by the Society to promote the Society’s good standing in the Community.
K. Restoration Ball Committee.
The Restoration Ball Chairman shall be elected at the last regular meeting of the Society in the spring

semester and shall hold office until the election of his successor. The Restoration Chairman

will lead the University of Virginia student initiative to restore and preserve the Rotunda.  The President shall appoint the remaining five members of the Restoration Committee, which will be responsible for the logistics and budget of the Restoration Ball (Event Planning), engagement with other student organizations for co-sponsorship to cover the full costs of the event (Co-Sponsorship), marketing the Restoration Ball to the University community (University Outreach), and alumni relations and fundraising related to the Restoration Campaign (Alumni Engagement).”

L. Debate and Oratory Committee.
The Debate and Oratory Committee shall be composed of three members, appointed by the President, one of whom shall be the Debate and Oratory Chairman. The duties of this committee shall include: arranging for the annual Smith-Simpson Debate on Diplomacy and all other inter-collegiate debates and competitions. This Committee shall plan and make all necessary arrangements for the Great Orators of History contest. The Committee may assist the Society in facilitating debate and oratory during its regular meetings.
M. Alumni Relations Committee.
The Alumni Relations Committee shall consist of three members appointed by the President, one of whom shall be the Alumni Relations Chairman.  The duties of this committee shall be to maintain contact with Alumni, promote all relevant events to Alumni, and organize in conjunction with the Executive Committee opportunities for charitable giving to the Society
N. Ex-Officio Members of Committees.
The President of the Society shall be ex officio a member of all Committees, There shall be no other ex-officio members appointed or named. Ex-officio members shall have no vote.
Section 2. Other Committees.
The President, or, in his absence, the Chairman, shall appoint such other committees as he shall see fit, and such as are authorized by the Society.
Section 3. Removal.
Any member of an appointive committee may be removed by the President from his office for neglect of duty, or for any other cause deemed sufficient.
ARTICLE IV. ORDERS OF BUSINESS
Section 1. Regular Meetings.
The following shall be the order of business at each regular meeting.

(a) Induction of New Members.

(b) Reading of the Minutes.

(c) Roll Call.

(d) Presentation and Discussion of Scholarly and Literary Works and the Delivery of Oratorical Addresses.

(e) Announcement of the Program.

(f) Reports of the Committees.

(g) Report of the Treasurer.

(h) Extraordinary and Unfinished Business.

(i) New Business, Motions, and Resolutions.

(j) Probationary Presentations.

(k) Adjournment.

When deemed appropriate by the President, the program and/or presentation of Probationary presentations may precede any or all of the other portions of the order of business. In any other case this order of business may be suspended at any meeting by a two-thirds vote of those regular members in good standing present and voting.

Section 2. Elections Meetings.
For the last meeting of each academic semester, the following shall be the order of business, subject to change by a two-thirds vote of those regular members in good standing present and voting:

(a) Induction of New Members.

(b) Reading of the Minutes.

(c) Roll Call.

(d) Reading of the Historian’s Chronicle (Spring Semester).

(e) Report of the Treasurer.

(f) Extraordinary and Unfinished Business.

(g) Election of the President.

(h) Induction of the President-Elect.

(i) Election of the Vice President.

(j) Election of the Secretary.

(k) Election of the Treasurer.

(l) Election of the Appropriations Committee.

(m) Election of the Historian (Spring Semester only, except in the case of a vacancy).

(n) Induction of the Vice President-Elect, the Secretary-Elect, the Treasurer-Elect and the Historian-Elect.

(o) Reports of Committees.

(p) New Business, Motions, Resolutions.

(q) Election and Induction of the Keeper.

(r) Adjournment.

The procedure for the election of officers shall be as follows:

1. Each candidate shall have a total of 15 minutes consisting of one 8-minute period and one 7-minute period.

2. The order in which candidates shall proceed shall be determined by agreement among the candidates. In the absence of agreement, the order shall be determined by lot. The same order shall apply to both periods allotted to the candidates.

3. Each candidate’s 8-minute period may be utilized at his discretion and may consist of any combination of speeches, including a candidate speech.

4. Once all of the candidates have completed their 8-minute periods, each candidate shall inform the chair as to the manner in which he wishes to allocate his 7-minute period, as well as appoint a representative to observe the counting of the ballots as provided by Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution.

5. The chair shall administer the 7-minute period in accordance with the candidate’s instructions.

ARTICLE V. FINANCES
Section 1. Reports of the Treasurer.
At the first meeting in each Presidential term, the Treasurer shall submit a written report, which shall be read before the Society, and, if accepted, be spread on the minutes. At the last meeting of each session he shall report the financial standing of the Society and the names of all Members who have not paid their dues, which report is also to be spread upon the minutes and to be re-read at the first meeting of the succeeding session.
Section 2. Audit.
Between the sixth and the eighth meeting of the semester and at the end of each semester, the accounts of the Treasurer are to be audited under the discretion of the Executive Committee, and the books, vouchers, etc., are to be turned over to the Historian for safe keeping.
Section 3. Funds of the Society.
No Member of the Society, acting in any capacity, may obligate the funds of the Society without the express authorization of the Treasurer, acting within his power to make disbursements. The Society shall honor all obligations legally incurred in its name by its Members, but must assess against any Member any amount to which he obligates the funds of the Society without approval, unless the disbursement is subsequently ratified by the Society.
ARTICLE VI. PROBATIONARY PRESENTATIONS
Section 1. Probationary Presentations.
A. Requirement.
Each Probationary Member shall present a probationary presentation to the Regular Membership. Acceptance of such presentation shall be a prerequisite to Regular Membership.
B. Procedure.
The probationary presentation requirement may be satisfied by completing any one of the following:

(1) A probationary speech of nine minutes in length, and presented according to the following procedure:

     (a) Uninterrupted constructive speaking: five minutes, with a

          light tap of the gavel at four minutes.

     (b) Constructive speaking subject to questioning and

          heckling, by the Regular and Associate Membership:

          three minutes.

     (c) Uninterrupted summary: one minute.

(2) A debate against a Regular or Associate Member according to the following procedure:

     (a) If the Probationary Member wishes to utilize the debate

          procedure, he should contact the Probationary Chairman at

          least one calender day prior to the presentation, indicating that

          he wishes to debate. The Probationary Chairman shall

          attempt to secure a volunteer from the Regular or

          Associate Membership to debate the Probationary

          Member. Volunteers may debate only once on the same

          resolution each semester.

     (b) Debates shall proceed in the following manner:

        (i) The volunteer from the Regular or Associate      

               Membership shall speak in favor of the resolution for

               four minutes of uninterrupted constructive speaking,

               being warned that the three-minute mark by a light

               tap of the gavel.

        (ii) The Probationary Member will speak

                extemporaneously in opposition to the arguments of

                the regular Member and the resolution for four

                minutes of uninterrupted constructive speaking, also

                being warned at the three-minute mark by a light tap

                of the gavel.

        (iii) There shall be two minutes of questioning and

                 heckling of the Probationary Member by the Regular

                 and Associate Membership.

        (iv) Two minutes of rebuttal speaking by the volunteer

                 Member, addressing arguments raised in the

                 Probationary Member’s constructive speech.

        (v)  Two minutes of rebuttal speaking by the

                 Probationary Member, addressing arguments raised

                 in the volunteer Member’s constructive speech.

        The Probationary Member may not bring any prepared

        materials to the debate, but he may refer to notes taken

        while the volunteer Member is speaking.

        The chairman will cite rules of procedure (i) through (v) for    

        a probationary debate listed in Article VI. Section 2.

        Paragraph B. Subsection (2) of the Bylaws immediately

        prior to such debate.

(3) A literary presentation according to the following procedure:

     (a) The probationary member shall read an original cohesive

          work of fiction or poetry under a single title, of at least

          six but no more than twenty minutes

     (b) There shall be at least one, and at the Chair’s discretion,

          up to five minutes of questioning and heckling of the

          Probationary Member by the Regular and Associate

          membership.

C. Critique.
Prior to the beginning of a probationary presentation, the President shall appoint a critic from the Regular or Associate Membership. The critic shall listen to the presentation and observe the speaker carefully and at the conclusion of the presentation shall render a constructive critique; the critique shall also recommend to the Regular Membership that the presentation be accepted or rejected.
D. Limitation on Further Critiques.
Critiques of probationary presentations shall be limited to the initial critique; followed by five speakers, each of whom shall be limited to five minutes total time, except where debate is extended by a two-thirds vote of the Regular members in good standing present and voting. The speaker making the initial critique, or any other speaker at the time of the debate on the probationary presentation, may recommend that the presentation be recorded as passing with distinction. A presentation shall be deemed to have passed with distinction if the recommendation is not objected to, at the time it is made, by any Regular or Associate Member. A presentation that has passed with distinction shall be considered for all appropriate awards at the end of the semester. A presentation that has passed without a dissenting vote shall not be deemed to have passed with distinction unless the other requirements of this paragraph have been met.
E. Vote on Acceptance.
Following the critique and any pertinent discussion, the Regular Membership shall vote on the question: Shall the presentation be accepted? A majority of two-thirds of those voting, a quorum being present, shall be required for the acceptance of a probationary presentation.
F. Vote Count.
If the presentation is rejected, the vote count shall be revealed by the President upon request of any Regular Member or of the Probationary Speaker.
G. Repeat Presentations.
The rejection of a probationary presentation shall be without prejudice. Another presentation on the same or different topic may be made during the semester, as scheduled by the Probationary Chairman.
H. Failure to Present a Probationary Presentation.
Unexcused failure to present a probationary presentation at such time as is scheduled by the Probationary Chairman shall bar the Probationary Member involved from making any probationary presentation that semester.
I. Subject.
Probationary Presentation shall be upon any subject capable of stimulating the intellect.
J. Discussion of Topic.
Upon a showing, during or following a probationary presentation but prior to the vote on acceptance of such presentation, that the Probationary Member involved did not discuss his topic and probationary presentation with the Probationary Chairman, the President, at his discretion, may require that the Probationary Member give his presentation at a later date and after he has so discussed it with the Probationary Chairman.
ARTICLE VII. PRESENTATIONS FROM THE MEMBERSHIP
Section 1. Membership Speeches.
No Member shall be required to make any speech, dramatic presentation, debate or reading to retain his or her active membership privileges.
A. Presentations.
Should a Member of the Society desire to make a speech, debate, or presentation to enlighten, excite, or generally edify the Society, he or she may use, but is not limited to, the following motions to structure his or her presentation:

     (1)Motion to Present a Topic. This motion grants a member three minutes for an extemporaneous or prepared speech. Two minutes of questioning, serious or otherwise, from the membership is to follow, with a conclusion from the member which should last no longer than one minute. Should the membership be so inclined, the Chair may recognize up to three members to respond to the topic for a time no greater than two and one half minutes.

     (2)Motion to Challenge. A member may make this motion to incite debate with another member, by challenging that member with a resolution. The parameters of debate are as follows: Four minutes for the affirmative argument; four minutes for the negative; a two-minute rebuttal from the affirmative, then a two-minute rebuttal from the negative. Should members be so inclined, the Chair may recognize no more than three members to speak for no more than two and one half minutes regarding the debate.

     (3) Motion for a Presentation. This motion grants a member as much time as he or she may consume in making a presentation.

B. Motions.
All above motions shall be made as unanimous consent requests of the following form:

Mr./Madam President (Chairman/Chairwoman), I request unanimous consent for [Name of Motion].

ARTICLE VIII. BADGES AND SHINGLES
Section 1. The Badge.
The Badge of the Society shall be of gold, triangular in shape, pointing down, approximately five-eighths of an inch to a side. It shall have upon its face two quills crossed, upon which, facing to the left, shall be a profile of Thomas Jefferson. In the corners at the top shall be: On the left side the Letter “J,” and on the right side the letter “S.” At the bottom shall be the Greek letters Phi Pi Theta.
Section 2. Shingles.
A certificate of membership, of suitable size and design, shall, after begin designed and printed by the Membership Committee, be presented by the Executive Committee to all Regular Members as soon as practicable following their initiation into Regular Membership. The Membership Committee shall be required, after each semester, to provide one such shingle to each Regular Member from the Probationary Class of the previous semester.
Section 3. Certificates of Merit.
A distinct certificate of merit may be presented by the Executive Committee to any Member who shall have evidenced outstanding participation in or service to the Society. Such certificates shall be awarded at the discretion of the Executive Committee and the President, at such times as they shall deem suitable.
ARTICLE IX. RULES OF ORDER
The rules contained in Robert’s Rules of Order, latest edition, shall govern the Society in all cases in which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with the Constitution and the Bylaws of the Society.